(ii) accelerate and facilitate energy development programmes of common interest. Although the mandate for cooperation at the highest levels of government is defined, the individuals and organizations that ultimately implement such agreements should be drawn from the best participants available in both countries, whether central, provincial or local, and from the public, non-governmental or private sector. Many of the most productive bilateral cooperation programmes have so far involved regional and local partnerships, and this cooperation should be encouraged and encouraged by high-level mandates. Joint strategic studies can influence policy decisions in both countries. In particular, scenario analyses and technology roadmaps have been effective ways of formulating a vision and justification for promoting the use of renewable energy. For example, by 2030, doE`s 20% study (2008a) helped policymakers imagine the barriers and benefits of a scenario in which the United States would significantly increase the share of wind energy in its energy mix. China has also carried out similar exercises, which can be influential if they are part of the country`s five-year planning cycle. The revisions to the 2020 wind capacity target (from 30 GW to 100 to 150 GW) are an example. Both countries could benefit from understanding all the strategic studies under development, as they both face similar technical and policy challenges related to the increased use of renewable energy technologies. Common demonstration projects, often very expensive, can provide operational experience for pre-commercialization technologies. Multi-country cost-sharing agreements can be beneficial for all parties involved, both for developers and for the countries in which products are marketed. A clean energy technology, often considered appropriate for a common demonstration, is CCS, which is applied to coal-fired power plants, a technology that would be very expensive for users, but which would benefit everyone if it greatly reduced harmful emissions. By authorising such transfers, this cooperation mechanism further encourages EU countries to exceed their targets, since they can receive a payment for energy transferred to others.

In addition, countries with less cost-effective renewable energy sources can achieve their goals at a lower cost. 1. ASEAN Member States are working to cooperate on worker training in all energy sectors, in light of their complementary interests and long-term goals to improve workforce capacity. (ii) strengthen existing institutions involved in human resource development programmes in the energy sector; iii) Develop strategies to promote energy trade in the ASEAN region. In 2007, the Biofuels Development Cooperation Agreement was signed by the United States.